ABDOMINAL WOUNDS

  • PENETRATING ABDOMINAL WOUNDS are caused by bites, bullets, knives, etc.
  • Internal bleeding may occur if organs & blood vessels are damaged
  • Massive infection may occur if stomach or intestines are damaged
  • Schlock may occur, including pale gums, rapid heart rate, shallow breathing
  • In the field, a compressive abdominal wrap should be applied quickly:
      1. Cover wounds liberally with gauze squares and antibiotic ointment
      2. Snugly wrap Ace bandage or towel around circumference of abdomen
      3. Secure abdominal wrap with tape, belt or other material as needed
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care

 

CHEST WOUNDS

  • PENETRATING CHEST WOUNDS are caused by bites, bullets, knives arrows, etc.
  • Heart & lungs may injured; if damage is severe, death may be imminent
  • If chest fills with air or blood, lungs will collapse & breathing will become labored
  • Shock may occur, including pale gums, rapid heart rate, shallow breathing
  • In the field, a lightly compressive chest wrap should be applied quickly:
      1. Cover wounds liberally with gauze squares and antibiotic ointment
      2. Lightly wrap Ace bandage or towel around circumference of chest
      3. Secure chest wrap with tape, belt, or other material
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care

 

EAR INJURY

  • EAR INJURIES can be caused by sharp objects, bites, bullets, foreign material, etc.
  • Ears have a rich blood supply – most injuries here will cause excessive bleeding
  • Head shaking should be discouraged – this will increase bleeding dramatically
  • Assess the injury quickly, then administer first aid
  • In the field, a light, circumferential head wrap should be applied
      1. Do not remove blood clots – this will increase bleeding
      2. Secure ear to the head with gauze, the adhesive tape
      3. DO NOT wrap the bandage too tightly
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for further care

 

EYE INJURY

  • EYE INJURIES can range from simple irritation to sight -threatening trauma
  • The cornea is the front surface of the eye that is normally transparent or clear
  • Conjunctivitis – eyes & eyelids may be swollen & red; discharge may be present
  • Corneal ulcer – cornea may be cloudy; eye will be painful & very sensitive to light
  • Corneal puncture – object has been penetrated through cornea; clear fluid may leak out
  • Proptosis – trauma may force eyeball out of its socket partially or completely
  • Treatment in the field depends on the nature of the injury:
      1. flush eyes with saline, eyewash or water to remove foreign material as needed
      2.Foreign objects that are PENETRATING THE CORNA should be left in place
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate treatment

 

NOSE INJURY

  • NOSE INJURIES can be cause by blunt trauma, sharp objects, foreign objects, etc.
  • The nose has a rich blood supply inside and out – excessive bleeding may occur
  • Sneezing may occur due to trauma or foreign material inside the nose
  • Treatment in the field depends on the nature of the injury to the nose:
      1. Clean wounds to the nasal skin with soap & water
      2. Remove foreign objects that are visible
      3. Foreign objects that are far inside the nose should be left in place
      4. Control excessive bleeding by inserting cotton in the nostril(s0
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care

 

PAW LACERATION

  • PAW LACERATIONS can be caused by trauma, sharp objects, foreign material, etc.
  • Veins & arteries are just under the skin on the lover limb – bleeding may occur
  • When an artery is injured, blood is bright red & blood loss is rapid & forceful
  • Bones in the paw may be broken or dislocated – lameness or swelling may occur
  • Treatment in the field depends on the nature of the injury to the paw:
      1. Gently clean small lacerations with soap & water
      2. Bandage or splint paws as necessary
      3. Control excessive bleeding with snug bandaging
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care

 

SKIN LACERATION

  • SKIN LACERATIONS can be caused by bites, plant material, sharp objects, etc.
  • Veins & arteries are often right under the skin – bleeding may or may not occur
  • Foreign material (hair, dirt, grass, etc.) may be under the lacerated skin edges
  • If a large amount of skin is damaged or removed, an animal go into shock:
      1. Gums would be pale, heart rate would be rapid, breathing would be shallow
  • Treatment in the field depends on the nature of the skin laceration:
      1. Gently clean small lacerations with soap & water
      2. Control excessive bleeding with snug bandaging
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care

 

TAIL INJURY

  • TAIL INJURIES can be caused by blunt trauma, bite wounds, sharp objects, etc.
  • Bleeding may be excessive with tail tip injuries, especially with tail wagging
  • Foreign material (hair, dirt, grass, etc.) may be under the lacerated skin edges
  • “Degloving” describes when some skin has been pulled completely off the tail
  • Treatment in the field depends on the nature of the tail injury:
      1. Gently clean small lacerations with soap & water
      2. Tal tip can be protected with cardboard/plastic tube if available
      3. Control excessive bleeding with snug bandaging
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care

 

TOE NAIL INJURY

  • TOE NAIL INJURIES are caused by trauma, nails getting wedged in crevices, etc.
  • Dewclaws & untrimmed toe nails have a high risk of injury
  • Bleeding is excessive with almost all toe nail injuries
  • The nail may be cracked or completely torn away from the paw
  • Treatment in the field focuses on control of bleeding:
      1. Apply styptic powder, Quikstop, or flour to tip of broken nail
      2. Apply a snug bandage to the paw. If blood soaks through, add bandage material
  • Transport animal to veterinary hospital for further care

 

VEHICULAR INJURY

  • VEHICULAR INJURY usually involves major trauma to the body in part or whole
  • Commonly called a “Hit-By-Car” injury in veterinary medicine
  • Shock may occur, including pale gums, rapid heart rate, shallow breathing
  • Internal bleeding may occur in the chest or abdominal cavity
  • If chest fills with air or blood, lungs will collapse & breathing will become labored
  • Head injury may occur – pupils may be unequal; blood may come from ears or nose
  • Spinal cord injury may occur- limbs may be paralyzed or stiff, anus may be open
  • Rush animal to veterinary hospital for immediate care; treat wounds secondarily
  • Apply muzzle! Any animal in pain may bite! Use a belt, shoelace, string etc.
  • Transport animal on backboard, wood plank, blanket, cardboard box, etc.